Chickenpox causes, care and prevention

Brighton Montessori

Chickenpox is an infectious disease, caused by the Varicella Zoster virus, and usually breaks out in the spring. This is a sensitive time and it is very easy to get sick, especially the little ones, that’s why today Brighton will guide parents on how to take care of and prevent this disease.

Bệnh thủy đậu nguyên nhân, cách chăm sóc và phóng chống

Causes of chickenpox

Chickenpox is an infectious disease, caused by the Varicella Zoster virus, and usually breaks out in the spring. The virus that causes chickenpox spreads mainly through the respiratory tract (or the air), and healthy people are susceptible to infection if they breathe in the droplets of saliva when a person with chickenpox coughs sneezes, or sneezes. In addition, when coming into contact with a patient with chickenpox, the disease can be spread from blisters when broken, damaged skin, or sores from an infected person. In particular, pregnant women who are unfortunately infected will be very easy to transmit to the fetus through the placenta.

Chickenpox symptoms

At the onset, patients may present with fever, headache, and muscle pain, and in some cases, children may have no warning symptoms.

When infected with chickenpox, the patient’s body will appear with “chicken bumps”. These are small round nodules that appear quickly within 12-24 hours, these nodules will evolve into blisters, blisters. Nodules can grow all over the body or grow scattered on the body, the average number is about 100 – 500 nodules. Under normal circumstances, these blisters dry up, become scabs, and clear up on their own in 4-5 days.

In children, chickenpox usually lasts about 5 to 10 days leading to absences from school or daycare.

Complications of chickenpox

Usually, chickenpox is a benign disease. But the disease can also cause dangerous complications such as meningitis, hemorrhage, sepsis, nodular infection, cellulitis, and hepatitis … Some cases can be fatal if the patient is not treated. timely treatment.

Pneumonia caused by chickenpox, less common, is very severe and difficult to treat. Encephalitis caused by chickenpox also occurs, not rarely: after chickenpox, children suddenly become irritable, and excited, sometimes accompanied by convulsions, and coma. These cases can carry long-term neurological sequelae: deafness, growth retardation, epilepsy… A mother who contracted chickenpox while pregnant may give birth to a child with birth defects later in life.

Caring for a patient with chickenpox

Because it is a respiratory disease and direct contact with blister fluid, when a child has chickenpox, the first thing parents should do is isolate the child at home until it is completely cured. Add vitamin C, and drop the nose 2 times a day for children. Wear soft, sweat-wicking clothes and pay special attention to ensuring the baby’s skin hygiene to avoid complications. Keep your child’s hands clean. When you need to come into contact with someone with chickenpox, you must wear a mask. After contact, wash your hands immediately with soap. Especially pregnant women should avoid contact with sick people.

Note: Avoid breaking the chickenpox nodules because it is easy to cause superinfection and can form long-lasting scars.

Located in a separate, well-ventilated room with sunlight, the isolation period is about 7 to 10 days from the onset of the disease (rash) until the blisters have completely dried up.
Use your items: towels, cups, cups, bowls, and chopsticks.
Clean the nose and throat daily with 0.9% physiological saline solution.
Change clothes and shower daily with clean warm water.
Wear loose, light, thin clothing.

For children:

Should cut the child’s nails, keep the child’s nails clean, or use cloth gloves to cover the child’s hands to avoid complications of secondary skin infections caused by scratching and scratching the blisters.
Eat soft, liquid, easy-to-digest foods, and drink plenty of water, especially fruit juices.
Use Milian blue (Methylene blue) solution to dab on broken blisters.
In case of high fever, common pain relievers can be used but must follow the doctor’s instructions, antibiotics can be used in case of infected sores: pus-filled sores, redness of the surrounding skin…

If the patient feels: Irritability, lethargy, fatigue, convulsions, coma, or bleeding from chickenpox, they should immediately take them to medical facilities for monitoring and treatment.

Chickenpox prevention

Although the disease can spread rapidly in the community, there is now a proactive measure to prevent chickenpox, which is vaccination with a vaccine. For children from 12 months to 12 years old, 1 dose should be given and the second dose should be given 6 weeks after the first dose or between 4-6 years of age to increase the effectiveness of prevention and reduce the risk of chickenpox. return despite previous vaccination. For children over 13 years of age, adolescents, and adults, 2 doses are given, preferably 6 weeks apart.

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